There are many types of survey questions such as ranking questions, open-ended questions, and scaled questions. How you intend to use the data will determine the type of question used. For example, if your goal is to gauge satisfaction or engagement, you may choose to use a scaled question. This type of question asks respondents to identify their level of agreement or satisfaction and allows you to benchmark results against similar organizations within your industry.
If you are asking a demographic question, you will want to use a multiple choice question with single choice. You may use check boxes allowing the respondent to select multiple options if applicable. Yes/no questions may be used to pre-screen or qualify a respondent. They are also great when employing skip-logic and presenting different questions to different people based upon previous responses.
Open-ended questions allow you to capture free form text and can be helpful when asking respondents to explain a rating or providing a space for general feedback not otherwise captured in the survey. Ultimately, the type of question used will depend upon how you intend to use the response.